20th Livestock census, 2019:
- The livestock census is conducted across the country periodically since 1919.
- So far, 19 Livestock Censuses were conducted in participation with State Governments and UT Administrations.
- The 20th Livestock Census was launched in October, 2018.
- The enumeration was done in both rural and urban areas.
- It has been designed to capture breed-wise number of animals and poultry birds.
- For the first time, livestock data were collected online in 20th Livestock Census.
- Advanced technology has been adopted to collect data through tablet computers.
- The total Livestock population is 535.78 million in the country showing an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census, 2012.
- Mithun, Yaks, Horses, Ponies, Mules, Donkeys and Camels taken together contribute 0.23% of the total livestock.
- Total Bovine population (Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun and Yak) shows an increase of 1.0%.
- The total number of cattle in the country is showing an increase of 0.8 %.
- There is a decline of 6 % in the total Indigenous Cattle population.
- The total buffaloes in the country is showing an increase of about 1.0%.
- The total milch animals (in-milk and dry) in cows and buffaloes is 125.34 Million, an increase of 6.0 %.
- The total sheep in the country increased by 14.1%.
- The Goat population in the country is showing an increase of 10.1%.
- The total Pigs in the country declined by 12.03%.
- The total Horses and Ponies decreased by 45.6% and the total population of Donkeys decreased by 61.23%.
- The total Camel population decreased by 37.1%.
- The total Poultry in the country increased by 16.8%.
Given the huge increase in dairy and agriculture extension programmes in India, The livestock census will give a true picture of status of farmers in India. Also, the recently launched fisheries and Dairy development fund would be leveraged as a scheme to further the cause of agriculture diversification in line with the strategy for doubling farmers income by 2022.
UPSC would focus on agriculture in Both Prelims and Mains in line with important plans and programmes being rolled out for farmers in the budget.
Placing it in the syllabus
Paper 3: Role of allied activities in Agriculture
- Agriculture extension program
- Operation Flood and White revolution
- Cow protection (Kamdhenu Ayog)
- Gobar Dhan scheme
- Livestock census
Agriculture extension program
- It is important to disseminate information about new technologies so that the farmer is able to make use of the latest agricultural developments. There also exists a gap between research findings and the needs of farmers. For technology to be successful, it is important that it should serve a useful purpose to the end user. The institution that bridges the gap between farmers and agricultural research scientists is the Agricultural Extension Service. This service works through an Agricultural Research System in the States.
- The main objective of Agriculture Extension Services or AES’s is to transmit latest technical know-how to farmers. Besides this, the AESs also focuses on enhancing farmers’ knowledge about crop techniques and helping them to increase productivity. This is done through training courses, farm visits, on farm trials, kisan melas, kisan clubs, advisory bulletins and the like.
- The National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management is an apex national institute set under the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. It assists the State Governments, the Government of India and other public sector organizations in effective management of their agricultural extension and other agricultural management systems.
Operation Flood and White revolution
Operation Flood was a rural development programme started by India’s National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970. One of the largest of its kind, the programme objective was to create a nationwide milk grid.It resulted in making India one of the largest producers of milk and milk products, and hence is also called the White Revolution of India. It also helped reduce malpractices by milk traders and merchants.
Varghese Kurien (chairman of NDDB at that time), then 33, gave the professional management skills and necessary thrust to the cooperative, and is considered the architect of India’s White Revolution (Operation Flood).
The bedrock of Operation Flood has been village milk producers’ cooperatives, which procure milk and provide inputs and services, making modern management and technology available to members.
Operation Flood’s objectives included:
- Increase milk production (“a flood of milk”)
- Augment rural incomes
- Fair prices for consumers
Cow protection (Kamdhenu Ayog)
Recently the Union Cabinet approved the setting up of a national cow commission for conservation, protection and development of cows and their progeny.
What is Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog?
In 2014 the Union Government launched the Rashtriya Gokul Mission, The Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog is an addition to this mission, which aims to conserve indigenous breeds of cows.
Working of the commision
- The commission will collaborate with other government institutions working on research in fields such as breeding and rearing of cows, organic manure and biogas.
- The commission will be tasked with providing a framework for cow conservation and development programmes.
- The Aayog will aim to conserve, protect and develop cows and their progeny and include the development and conservation of native breeds.
- The commission will also provide policy framework and direction to the cow conservation and development programmes in the country.
Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources Dhan (GOBAR-DHAN) scheme
- The scheme aims to positively impact village cleanliness and generate wealth and energy from cattle and organic waste. The scheme also aims at creating new rural livelihood opportunities and enhancing income for farmers and other rural people.
- The scheme is being implemented as part of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
Livestock census: Key Highlights
- It was the 20th livestock census, first livestock census conducted in India was 1919 and previous livestock census was conducted in 2012.
- Animals being covered: Cattle, buffaloes, mithun, yaks, sheep,goats, pigs, horses, ponies, mules, donkeys, camels, pigs, dogs, rabbits, elephants.
- India and its Livestocks: Cattle-37.28%, Goats-26.40%, Buffaloes-21.23%, Sheeps-12.71%, Pigs- 2.01%,and others(horses,donkeys, etc)-0.37%
- Birds being covered: Fowl, ducks, turkeys, emuls, quails, guinea fowls, ostriches, geese.
- Delayed by two years, the livestock census, conducted in five years, is likely to be published this year.
- Unlike the 2012 census, the latest one is collecting details of breeds of select animals and birds.
- Livestock population is 51.2 crore, according to 2012 livestock census.